Thursday, September 3, 2020

What lead Orestes Brownson to coin the term Manifest Destiny Research Paper

What lead Orestes Brownson to coin the term Manifest Destiny - Research Paper Example Orestes Brownson, is viewed as an establishing father of one â€Å"school of thought†, as he pronounced out of the entirety of the conditions of the Western Hemisphere, the America just had a â€Å"destiny.† This implied America as he saw it had been decided to do glorious things throughout the entire existence of humankind. In this way, the Manifest Destiny idea depends on the possibility that America had a perfect fortune. In any case, there were worries that were springing up, which appeared to challenge this idea and subjection was the fundamental issue. It raised issues on whether they ought to be permitted into the domains and the effect it could have on America being the heavenly fate. Different angles, for example, that of George Bancroft, of The American Republic specifies that the state begins in man's social nature and infers its privileges, not from assent or understanding of people, or the acquiescence of the privileges of people, however, under God, from s ociety itself, and along these lines has for its strategic ensure and shield the rights on one hand of society, and a person. There is no general public without people, however there are no people without society George Bancroft (1866). George (1866), keeps on expressing that Orestes, however having faith in topic of society, he experienced issues with this idea of the individuals as it was not in every case clear who the individuals were, or who were to be perceived as their genuine or ill-conceived representatives. George (1866) keeps on expressing that, there was disquiet of an apotheosis of a people that was together, which was the beginning of communism. George expresses that as, â€Å"...for if the general public, were incredible or preeminent in the best sense, the last court of inquiries, attestation of individual freedom notwithstanding the vote based country would not exist.† On America as a Nation, Orestes Brownson accepted that Countries can be seen as people from a major picture or scale, have life, feeling of independence, reason, a brain of their own and same law that oversee improvement and development or even rot as an individual. In addition, a country needed to know itself, comprehend why it exists, power that it has resources, rights and predetermination. This implied a country gave sub-classes, that made it entirety. The Mission of the country, as per Orestes, implied that: â€Å"Every living country has a thought given it by Providence to acknowledge, and whose acknowledgment is its uncommon work, crucial, predetermination. Each country is, is some sense, a picked people of God. It imply that the Jews were viewed as the picked individuals of God, from whom the convention were to stay until the savior returned. History didn't spare its strategic, to the extent they are known, they have added to the turn of events or issues, for example, defilement of religion and human progress. Oppression is uncouth and abnormal.† Orestesbro wnson on the web (2009). Another issue that Orestes saw essential for the country as a show predetermination was the need to comprehend the constitution. This was on the grounds that the constitution of America being faulty. He contended that on the off chance that the states that had slaves was as a straightforward understanding, at that point they could never flourish. In any case, the issue was How to affirm association, without there being combination and state rights without deterioration. In addition, the country needed to have a nature for it to be a legislature. He accepted that; The nature or quintessence of government is to administer. An administration that doesn't administer is just no legislature by any stretch of the imagination. In the event that it has not the capacity to oversee and oversees not it might be an office, an instrument in the possession of people for propelling their private advantages, however it isn't government. To be government it must oversee the t wo people and the network. On the off chance that it is a

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Killing the Cherry Tree free essay sample

Globules of cooling sweat dot my temple and dribble off my nose as I run down the court. Traces of salt squeeze my dried tongue. My muscles consume maple syrup. Tennis shoes squeak, humiliated mentors bark and step, players holler and snort, the group cheers and challenges. Be that as it may, I can't hear any of that. A quiet of fixation and center wraps me. I think to and fro between the player I’m guarding and the player spilling the ball, knowing she’s going to pass it. I gaze between them to see them both, and think, â€Å"You’re not getting the ball.† She passes. I whack the ball away midair, sending it towards the opposite finish of the court. With a flood of adrenaline, I jump forward, waving my arms as though to utilize the thick air to propel myself, and run towards the ball. I grab it up and run as quick as Possible towards the crate, towards scoring. We will compose a custom article test on Murdering the Cherry Tree or on the other hand any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page I feel somebody coming behind me and I tense marginally. Be that as it may, I’m at the bushel. I get my spill. Step. I bring down my shoulder. Step. Layup. I’m sent flying from the push behind me and collide with the divider like an irate judge’s hammer directing request in the court. I snarl, thinking there’s no chance the shot went in. The whistle blows, the group stands and thunders. I cause a stir in shock. I made the shot, and she fouled me. I can't help the development of a grin as I pass her on my way to the foul line. The ref passes me the ball. Unadulterated quiet hangs in the sticky air. Skip, drop-turn, bob, turn. Respite. Shoot. Wash. I gaze toward the energized group and sweep for him. I see an overweight mother from the other group frowning. I see an elderly person serenely getting a charge out of a mustard secured frank. I see a young lady tallying out Skittles for her companion. I see the guardians of my colleagues upsettingly cheering. I see my mother, who grins and waves, sitting with my more youthful sibling and sister. Be that as it may, he’s not with them. I look by the entryways at a picture taker and two or three players from the game previously. I think, â€Å"No shock there.† Endless youngsters experience the nonattendance of a parent, much as I did. Guardians may haveto work so much that they disregard the friends and family they are working for. Guardians buckle down for their family: to pay for a house, pay for training, give their children easy street they merit. Youngsters merit a solid relationship with a parent. It is pivotal to their turn of events. Along these lines, guardians ought to invest as much energy with their kids as their activity allows and treasure the time, as they just grow up once. My father and I used to be as close as a dad and his firstborn child. He used to give me toy vehicles and superhuman activity figures to play with notwithstanding my Barbies and Polly Pockets. He would take me with him to the workplace or a building site, where I’d unobtrusively sit in a corner playing with my purple teddy bear. He would convey me on his shoulders any place we went so I could see over everyone’s head. He would do anything for me, including when I frantically needed a cherry tree. In the wake of perusing the George Washington cherry tree tale, I needed to be much the same as George Washington. So my father got me a cherry tree. We went through hours together burrowing earth, gathering stones, and planting the tree in the lawn. Much to my dismay that following quite a while of infection, the tree would kick the bucket. When I began sports, he upheld me and trained me regardless of whether he had no clue about what he was discussing. He would tape the entirety of my games, and despite the fact that I was truly awful toward the beginning, he was glad. He was an incredible father. He accomplished work enthusiastically, running his own little organization, yet he despite everything saw time as with his family and go to supper day by day. At the point when I was in fifth grade, be that as it may, when the economy endured a shot, he began to work all the more frequently and started to float away from us. In the end, he needed to close down his organization and begin working for other people. He initially worked for an organization positioned in Maryland, which expected him to have a condo there while all of us remained at home in Pennsylvania. At first, he attempted to invest as much energy as possible with us. The main thing to go was Sunday mass. Next were parent-educator gatherings, class kickoff night, b-ball games, and opening presents on Christmas morning. Lastly, my secondary school graduation. I came to imagine that my dad’s nonattendance from my games was typical. I was utilized to it. His inability to show up didn’t upset me; numerous guardians can't go to their children’s games because of work. So when he missed workmanship features, ability shows, and grants functions, I could have minded less. In the long run, he took a vocation with an alternate organization explicitly so he could telecommute and invest more energy with us. It sounded promising, yet that’s not what occurred. Following quite a while of picking work over family I understood the nonattendance wasn’t just from my exercises, however from my entire life. At whatever point he was really home, there were just hollering, outrage, and hammering entryways. I couldn’t trust in him any longer. He didn’t know me or my kin. There was an imperceptible, indestructible divider between us, blocking feelings and any possibility of being close once more. He was never intel lectually present in discussions except if he was giving a monolog on current legislative issues. So when I left for school, it didn’t truly feel like I was leaving him since he was never there. At the point when my family dropped me off, he gave me an embrace. I developed hardened and my eyes dashed to and fro as my eyebrows sew together in disarray. I comprehend the need to accommodate friends and family, and that for certain employments it is extremely unlikely around extended periods or voyaging. In any case, concentrating on work can destroy the associations with the very individuals one is attempting to help through their activity. The endless ends of the week my father attempted to dazzle customers were endless ends of the week my kin and I missed heading off to the lake, playing prepackaged games, or going out for breakfast with him. Connections, when broken, are exceptionally difficult to revamp. Since I know the significance of working, I am not debilitating it, yet promising upkeep of parent-kid connections. In the end, the economy improved, giving my father all the more spare time. Rather than investing his energy with his children, he spent it playing computer games. Guardians have a pivotal job in the turn of events and prosperity of a kid. The occasions my relationship with my father were the most noticeably awful w ere likewise the most hopeless occasions of my life. I can't tell on the off chance that he feels a similar way, yet my mother continually lets me know, â€Å"He’s going to lament it.† Parent-kid connections are significant. Having a relationship with a parent is practically programmed; very little exertion is expected to look after it. Keeping up a relationship with a youngster resembles thinking about a cherry tree. It takes a great deal to execute a cherry tree, however once it’s dead, it’s dead. Trees practically develop all alone and don’t need care. However, in the event that a tree gets wiped out, it is dependent upon the cultivator to spare it. In the event that the planter dismisses the tree, it will pass on, and the new springtime fruits are lost until the end of time. Be that as it may, if the proprietor gives the tree a portion of their available time and medical attendants it back to wellbeing, the tree twists and delivers perpetual organic product.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Marketing Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 2

Advertising Plan - Essay Example This is a practical drink and can be made accessible in various flavors to suit various tastes. With the crucial arrive at the item to by far most of the individuals, it has been chosen to embrace a promoting plan which incorporates expressing the advertising targets, the exploration to conjecture the interest and afterward the showcasing system. To decide the interest that could be created for this new item, it is viewed as important to lead an overview. To lead the review showcase division is important with the goal that the objective market is concentrated as opposed to the entire market. Since this is a wellbeing drink and that too a milk item, spotlight would be on the youngsters somewhere in the range of 6 and 18 years and the ladies. The division would additionally be founded on psychographic subtleties like way of life and social socioeconomics like the pay level. Along these lines to lead the overview surveys have been planned (Appendix A). These polls would be conveyed through messages to housewives. The addresses would be secured from the neighborhood clubs and women’s associations. Polls would likewise be sent to the neighborhood clubs and associations where countless ladies are utilized. The showcasing blend of any item would remember the correct item at the opportune time for the ideal spot with the correct deals and advancement system and at the correct cost. To have serious situating, these are the four P’s (Product, Price, Place and Promotion) fundamental for advertising any item. To guarantee great deals of our item and administrations, it is basic to comprehend the item, its need and significance, the cost ought to be sensible, if essential double valuing, the item ought to be effectively accessible consequently conveyance must be correct lastly the correct attention to the item. The special techniques must be considered relying upon serious variables. The item is new in the market with an attention on wellbeing and focused at kids and the ladies and consequently achievement is

Saturday, June 6, 2020

Marx and Burkes Contrasting Views of Ideal Progress - Literature Essay Samples

Edmund Burke and Karl Marx would have been mortified at each others conception of acceptable progress and the movement of history. Such repugnance, in fact, was indeed expressed by Marx, reflecting the two polar views of his and Burkes respective philosopher parents, in this quote directed at Burke: The sycophant-who in the pay of the English oligarchy played the romantic laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution just as, in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles, he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy-was an out-and-out vulgar bourgeois.From Das KapitalSuch condemnation of character-out-and-out vulgar bourgeois is the most brutal of insults for Marx-outlines in the philosophers own words how fundamentally incompatible their two perspectives are. A component of such perspective, especially emblematic of their contrary views, is their outlook on the proper movement of history. While Burke supports an organic, gradua l constitutional reform, Marx calls (literally; evidence in the closing line of his manifesto) for massive, violent revolution.Burke, within his letter Revolution in France, employs the language of naturalness throughout, so that an organic motif emerges. This motif fits with his advocation of gradual change-while he admits a dynamic conception of society within his philosophy, he is careful to reject any sudden, new order; things must evolve slowly, as does a plant: Our political system isa permanent body composed of transitory partswhich moves on through the varied tenour of perpetual decay, fall, renovation, and progression. Thus by preserving the method of nature in the conduct of the state, in what we improve, we are never wholly new; in what we retain we are never wholly obsolete (pg. 39). Tradition also played a large role in Burkes philosophy on the natural movement of history. He sees it as imperative that tradition be acknowledged; this idea, of course, echoes his apprecia tion for incremental evolution. The rejection of the past is not to be tolerated. One can view this notion, for example, by examining Burkes theoretical support: he nearly always defends his ideas with historical examples. It is with such an attitude that Burke approaches the French Revolution. He is a fierce critic, decrying it as a violent rebellion against tradition and proper authority. Not only did he believe in private property (another point of contention with Marx), but such a blatant disregard for tradition was certain to receive his denunciation: he famously predicted that this experiment would end badly (this prediction was, in fact, what won the majority of his followers after an icy initial reception of his work). The very idea of the fabrication of a new government is enough to fill us with disgust and horror (p.36) he proclaims within Revolution in France. Such a radical creation contradicts his plant model and ignores the tradition of the past-it is, in a few words, unacceptable-and doomed. What also distances Burke from Marx is his essentially reactionary views. Revolution in France is blatantly anti-enlightenment, and serves to essentially criticize the revolution. His bitter, reactionary outlook is betrayed in the text: The age of chivalry is gone. That of sophisters, economists, and calculators has succeeded (pg. 89). Such a quote betrays Burkes primary desires: a solid regard for tradition and the wish to slow the progression of history into controlled, incremental steps. This liberal conservatism-the desire for gradual, constitutional reform-is what most fully describes Burkes outlook on historical movement. Marxs view on the progression of history is quite the opposite. His philosophy is Hegelian; he thus considers history dialectically. Within this theory there is an implied movement towards greater and greater rationality with each new thesis. This evolution, however, is not necessarily smooth; as Marx describes, with each change in so cietys mode of production (for example, feudal to the current capitalist), there comes a new class struggle. He further clarifies this theory in a (then) modern-day context. The capitalism of the time would prove catastrophic: as capitalists invest in more in technology and less so in labor, the rate of profit will fall, bringing with it the collapse of sectors of the economy. This cycle of growth, collapse, and regrowth will then further impoverish the proletariat, and empower the bourgeois. The inevitable end, then, or eschaton, in this Marxist model is brought about by a massive, violent, and well-organized revolution. What Marx stresses the most, however, is the necessity of violence: These ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions (pg. 44). This sentiment highly contradicts Burkes ideals of calm, legal, and marginal societal evolution. Marx also shows severe contempt for tradition (one of Burkes favorite institutions): In short, the C ommunists everywhere support every revolutionary movement against the existing social and political order of things (pg. 44), and even more explicitly: The Communist revolution is the most radical rupturewith traditional ideas (pg.44). The same tradition that Burke venerates and deems valuable, Marx cannot wait to eradicate. Marx and Burke, however, both maintain philosophies that are highly related with the progressions and inevitablities of time, lucidly projected by Marx as a wheel of history (pg. 19)-a dynamic, inexorable gear that will bring about change. This concept of time, however, is where the communion of the philosophers end, as they quickly branch out onto polar schools of thought, one revolving around steady, organic growth, the other consumed with a violent and radical new order.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Dynamic Relationships in The Chosen - 749 Words

Chaim Potok’s The Chosen set in Brooklyn, New York, tells the story of two Jewish teenagers, Danny Saunders and Reuven Malter, as they experience the effects the Second World War has on their religious traditions. Their friendship faces trials but is eventually re-strengthened. The boys’ relationship fluctuates as it moves from trust to compassion and then to restoration. Danny and Reuven’s relationship progresses from tension in the beginning to an intimate friendship because of a mutual trust that is established. Danny says, â€Å"Sometimes I’m not sure I know what God wants though†¦I’ve never said that to anyone before† (80). From early on Danny feels comfortable confiding in Reuven. He shares his innermost feelings with Reuven and they form a closely knit bond. Danny and Reuven have a conversation; Reuven asks Danny, â€Å"Are you going to like being a Rabbi?† (82). Danny replies, â€Å"No, but I have no choice, it’s like a dynasty, if the son doesn’t take the father’s place, the dynasty falls apart† (Ibid.). This piece of evidence once again displays a profound trust the boys have. This conversation is a turning point for the book because Danny admits he does not want to carry on his father’s rabbinic dynasty. The fact that Danny openly shares this shocking information wit h Reuven shows how strong the boys relationship is. After a personal conversation Reuven narrates as he observes Danny, â€Å"I saw him begin to play absent-mindedly with one of his earlocks. We were quiet for a longShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of A Coaching Session With One Individual1172 Words   |  5 Pagesempirical research. As this study cannot cover all areas of coaching research, we will only focus on areas that will directly influence the implementation of the coaching session and therefore topics have been carefully chosen to suit the GROW model and the coaching relationship. Once a good base of literature is collected, the paper will then apply these guidelines to develop an evidence-based framework to implement. In order to assess the success of this framework, a self-reflection log and clientRead MoreImpact Of Group Dynamics On The Productivity Of An Organization1701 Words   |  7 Pages Impacts of Group Dynamics on the Productivity of an Organization Organizations around the globe understand clearly the needs of the people they serve. For employees, the need for training is always to enhance their capacity in a way that helps them to perform their work effectively. 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These family members include my grandfather, John Brown, who was a deacon at a Baptist church before his passing. My grandmother, Susan Brown, who is currently caring for my sister and her child. Also included is my mother, Yvonne and her two younger sisters Pamela and Adrienne. Both my mother and her sisters are currently unemployed. In this genogram, I have also included my brother Aaron, and my sister Kristin. MyRead MoreImplementation Of Orlando s Dynamic Nurse Patient Relationship Model940 Words   |  4 PagesOrlando’s Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship Model Nurses of the twenty-first century are expected to be equipped with multiple abilities to which they must apply to various circumstances. Through the nursing theories that have been developed over the years, nurses can further become well rounded in the ways in which they treat their patients. One theory in particular, pertains to the nurse-patient relationship and how vital it can be when caring for others. Ida J. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Learning Environment And Instructional Practice - 762 Words

Student ratings can provide teachers, administrators, and researchers with valuable information about the learning environment and instructional practice, and have become a critical component in policy efforts to assess and improve teaching. Seventeen states and many large municipalities including Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee and Denver, Colorado include student ratings as a key component in formative and summative teacher evaluation plans (Partee, 2012). Several other states and municipalities, including Los Angeles, are in the process of developing or piloting student surveys for future use in teacher evaluation (Phillips Yamashiro, 2013). Advocates note that students are natural observers of their classroom environments, have extensive and rich knowledge of their teachers, and that student ratings can be predictive of important outcomes, such as student academic and socio-emotional development. In addition, student ratings are relatively easy and cost-effective to collec t, particularly in comparison to structured classroom observations, (Rothstein Mathis, 2013; Rowan Correnti, 2009; Balch, 2012) which are perhaps the most widely used method for collecting data about instructional practice (Rowan Correnti, 2009; Partee, 2012; Pianta Hamre, 2009; Taylor Tyler, 2012; Martà ­nez, Taut Schaaf, 2013). Student ratings are often collected using surveys or questionnaires, and inferences about instructional practices and learning environments are often based onShow MoreRelatedInstructional Leadership : The Implementation Of Strategic Planning Concepts Regarding Quality Instruction Essay1539 Words   |  7 Pagesis your definition of instructional leadership? Instructional leadership is the implementation of strategic planning concepts regarding quality instruction. 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Indo-Bangladesh Relationship free essay sample

Ultimately, it was a victory of New Delhi. After the Bangladesh War of independence of 1971, India’s position was further strengthened. During the war India proved to be the closest and strongest ally of Bangladesh . But following independence, the transition in the direction was marked by many ups and downs even during the life time of Shikh Mujib. Lord Polmerston gave a dictum in 18th century -In international relations we have neither permanent enemies nor perpetual friends, but only permanent interests. This quotation would appear more as a truism for Indo-Bangladesh relations than any other instance. Though Bangladesh has emerged as an independent state with Indian support, it has inherited bitter relations with India from Pakistan . This animosity has its root in the British imperial policy of divide and rule. During the early phase at relation with India, three crucial bi-lateral issues come up. They were – A. Sharing of Gangas Waters on a permanent basis, B. The d elimination of sea boundary in the Bay of Bengal and, C. Redrawing the land boundary between the two countries. These issues could have been party resolved during the term of government of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Bahman who was close to and respected by the Indian leaders. Besides these, there are some other issues which are so important now for a good Indo-Bangladesh relationship. Bangladesh’s Strength and Weakness Bangladesh strength lies in having a huge population, homogeneity of race, common language, communal harmony, fertile lands and availability of gas. Homogeneity and absence of federal social structure have increase unity among people. Bangladesh has a sea-frontage and it facilitates, among thers, export and import of goods. The country is a land of rivers that are used for navigation. The natural resources of rivers and sea (fish), the reverie and monsoon rains have profound impact on their livelihood. The country is strategically located between the Seven Eastern Indian provinces and the rest of India. The country can provide river transit route to India and Nepal used t he territory for transiting their goods for exports and imports. Bangladesh is not self-sufficient in producing all consumer goods which is as against the above advantages. Impoverished agriculture conditions have led to low living standards low purchasing power of the people. Conservative rural society often discourages Women’s economic and social empowerment . Bangladesh’s weakness lies in small size of territory, a large unskilled labor force, deficient in mineral resources, landless peasants, gender inequality, disparity is distribution of natural wealth and weak democratic tradition. The climate is not favorable for hard work because of humidity. Besides these, the recurrent occurrence of natural disasters (flood, cyclones, drought etc. ) is the vital factor of weakness of Bangladesh. Indo-Bangladesh Relationship Bangladesh formal relationship with India commenced on 6th December, 1972 when it had accorded recognition to Bangladesh within three days of the outbreak of Indio-Pakistan War. India’s meant the birth of Bangladesh as an independent country was a foregone calculation, although Pakistan army didn’t surrender until 16th December 1971. Bangladesh has attached great importance to its relations with India and developed an intricate maze of economic, political, cultural and personal connections with its largest neighbor, India. However, relationship with India has gone through an up and down curve during last 40 years. This uneven relationship appears to be due largely to the perception of one country against the other about each other’s role and attitudes towards bilateral and regional issues. This is not unusual because neighboring countries around the world maintain in general a kind of â€Å"See-saw† relationship with each others. Indo-Bangladesh Friendship Treaty: Boon of bilateral relations: When we discuss about the bilateral relationship between India and Bangladesh, it is necessary for us to discuss and better understand the 1972’s Friendship Treaty between Bangladesh and India. It is considered the boon of bilateral relation between these two countries. In 1972 on 19th March this India Bangladesh friendship Treaty signed for a term of 25 years. This sign was the formal aspect of relationship for these two neighboring countries. The preamble sets out the state of relations which is important to quote below:- Inspired by common ideas of peace, secularism, democracy, socialism and nationalism, having struggled together for the retaliations of these ideas and cemented ties of friendship through blood and sacrifices which led to the triumphant emergence of a free, sovereign and independent Bangladesh. Determined to maintain fraternal and good neighboring relations and transform their border of eternal peace and friendship. Adhering firmly to the basic tenets of non-alignment, peaceful co-existence, mutual co-operation, non- interference in internal affairs and respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty. Determined to safeguard peace, stability and security and to promote progress of their respective counties through all possible avenues of friendship between them. The worlds were indeed noble and lofty words. The second, third and fourth recitals are to be examined later and to what extent they were translated into action by the two countries. Before this treaty India and USSR singed a similar friendship Treaty in August 1971. Though the duration of Indo-Bangladesh was 25 years untill1997. So Bangladesh follow the policy and shows it because India and Bangladesh signed a treaty and also India and USSR signed same treaty . So Bangladesh reflects the importance of these two countries policy –external and internal. This treaty gave birth many question because of the secret nature of negotiating the Treaty and because one provision (Article 9 of the treaty) could be interpreted in many ways, not apparently favorable to Bangladesh interest. It is a matter of sorrow that India can’t approve this treaty in their parliament (Locoshava) ,but Bangladesh approved this treaty in 1973 in the parliament( Jatio Shansad) Geographical Location: Internationally Bangladesh share total 4165 km border line with India. But there is a dispute about 16. 5 km border line and this problem still running today. In those disputes areas conflict between both countries border security guards and general people occur frequently even every day. A competition of arms rise red alert is the incident of day to day life. Sometimes Flag Meeting was arranged to reduce the level of conflict among them. A treaty was signed in 1974 named â€Å"Mujib-Indira Treaty† for that reason to resolve this problem. Bangladesh Government approved this treaty but the Indian government (Lokoshava) can’t approve this treaty after 37 years. It is a crucial work done by India. All time they think we are the â€Å"Saltine State† of them. This problem affect very much on the bilateral relationship between Bangladesh and India. Border Issue: The land boundary between India and Bangladesh was determinate in 1947 by Sir Cyril Radcliff when British India partitioned. But Radcliff made some problem in boundary in division time. Both India and Bangladesh hold some land of other country. These lands are called Chitmahal. In this system Bangladesh hold land of India and India also the same. It is still running through the Pakistan period. There are total 111 Chitmahal of India which lies in the land boundary of Bangladesh and 51 of Indian border. So the problem of Dhogram Berubari and Angarpota enclaves were previously between India and Pakistan (now Bangladesh). But after the liberation of Bangladesh the problem still stay. Border problem are highly emotional and not easy to settle when they arise even within a country. To prevent border conflict an agreement was signed in 1974 named Indo- Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement. After signing this treaty Bangladesh government passed it in the parliament but till today India didn’t do it. As a result, the provisions of the agreement can’t be put into effect. So, the exchange of more than 50 enclaves by India to Bangladesh and the demarcation of 6. 5 km border remain as unfinished tasks. Seed of Discontent-Tin Bigha Corridor between Mainland Bangladesh and its enclaves within India: Complete land-boundary demarcation includes landing over to Bangladesh of the Tin Bigha† corridor to Dahagram† and Angarpota† enclaves simultaneously with the transfer of Bangladesh to India the most important issue between India and Bangladesh. According to land boundary Agreement of 16 May, 1974 these two countries exchange the enclaves between them. After that all the enclaves in Bangladesh and India would be exchanged except South Berubari for India and Dahagram and Angarpota in Bangladesh. It is a matter of sorrow that Bangladesh gave Berubari to India but we don’t get Tin Bigha fCorridor. But after a long time, 26th June in 1992 India opened Tin Bigha for us. As a result, the people of Dahagram and Angarpota easily visit mainland Bangladesh and vice verse. However, at present the crucial reality is that Bangladesh is not allowed to use the corridor freely. A huge number of Bangladeshi was killed by the Border Security Force (BSF) of India. This practice affect very much in the bilateral relationships of Bangladesh and India. Brutality of BSF in border area: The BSF of India is like the Nazi force of Hitler. They killed the general Bangladeshi enclaves’ people. But these people are not threat for India security. Besides, when the people of Bangladeshi enclaves go near the border line the BSF of India shoot them without any warning. India do it because to show their power. The BGF of Bangladesh tolerate this unlawful. Sometimes, they call matter â€Å"Flag Meeting† with BSF of India . But after 2/3 days the BSF forget the commitment. They do the same thing again. We all know that, last year a girl of 13/13 years named â€Å"Falani† shoot by the Indian BSF . Her dead body was hanging with a fence of â€Å"Katatar†. The whole world saw this . We can’t understand how this girl was the threat of India? Bangladesh government informed Indian government to take necessary steps to stop border killing. But the BSF do not pay any attention to this proposal. They directly declared it is impossible to stop shooting in the border. But, I want to know how an armless people be a threat of India? The bilateral relationship with India comes to a serious hogition level. It is because of the brutality of BSF. BSF should think that Bangladesh is a independent sovereign country. Cattle Smuggling Issue: Cattle smuggling is a border related serious issue of Indo-Bangladesh relationship. The clashes between the BSF and the BGF also result because of the problem of Cattle Smuggling from India to Bangladesh. The BSF has arrested over 2000 smugglers took the cattle in an unfair means. Sometimes they give bride to the BSF foe passing border. Some experts negate this issue. But, it is the high time to pay attention for that issue to stop the cattle smuggling in the border. In this year, one cattle smuggler was caught by the BSF and BSG torture in an middle age tradition. They nude the guilty person and tortures him. Influence of BSF inside the border area of Bangladesh: Sometimes the Indian BSF illegally entered inside the border area of Bangladesh. And, they capture the harvests cattle and the rice of the field. The BSF took it and go the India border. It is just reflects the quotation of â€Å"Might is Right†. But when the two country established bilateral relationship between them. They should ensure a friendly environment between them. Dispute due to Border Guidelines: A major cause of dispute between Indo-Bengal relations has been the differing interpretation of border guidelines framed in 1975. India maintains that these guidelines are meant for the demolition of defensive structures within 150 years of No Man’s Land. They don’t apply to the building of a fence along the border since it is meant to check smuggling and other illegal activities. But the BGF has misinterpreted the guidelines probably with the sole object of capturing India Land trapped between the fence and the No Man’s Land. Some suggestion can be opted to solve the Bangladesh –India border problem. These are- Fulfilling the claims of 1974 border treaty. Immediately stop shoot at sight policy of BSF and alleged BSF soldiers should be trialed. A legal body can be formed who will guide both the authorities to maintain international standards of border management. Both governments have to initiate development policies which can mitigate basic needs at the poverty stricken border regions. More people to people contract of two contracts should be promoted. Cross-border trade should be increased to avoid border smuggling. Water Issue: After getting independence from Pakistan, Bangladesh faced the problem of water sharing problem with India. Bangladesh is a land of river. Some 230 small or big rivers flow in the heart of the Bangladesh. But the main rivers numbers are 57. Though 54 rivers flow into Bangladesh by India. As a result for water supply flow we depend totally with the mercy of India . And India can easily influence over any river by controlling its flow. To solve these problems a joint river commission was made in 1972. But, in 1974, when the India opened their â€Å"Farakka Barrage†, the adverse effect fall upon the flow of water in Bangladesh. A short term treaty signed in 1975, but it could not see the light of hope. This situation falls down day by day. To solve this problem a 30 years long treaty signed in 12th December on 1996. This is done to solve water problem permanently. But, we can’t see any hope till today. Farakka Barrage: After the independence of Bangladesh Gangas water sharing issue put the needs of future discords. The Farakka Barrage (over Ganga River) disputes which was a source of tension and most disturbing problem between India and Pakistan now Bangladesh. It affects therelation between two countries. The Water disputes over the sharing of the Gangas originated when India decided to construct a barrage at Farakka, 11 miles from Bangladesh border. By the end of 1974, the barrage was completed. Although Bangladesh –India Friendship Treaty of 1972, the Farakka Barrage was put into operation in 1975 without deciding the allocation of Waters of the Gangas. According to international Law, the upstream state can‘t exploit the waters of downstream country. But such difficulty faced by economically weak and small countries, such as Bangladesh against bigger countries such as India. Impact of Farakka Barrage over Bangladesh: After the independence of Bangladesh the barrage becomes a loop and death-blow. After construction of the barrage the adverse impacts point out in the below- * Major consequences of reduction of the dry season flow. * Low water flow during dry season(January-May) * Socio-economic loss * Meeting Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) becomes difficult for Bangladesh. Increase in water related disasters, loss of infrastructure, socio-economical instability. * Loss in fish aquaculture and navigability. * Agricultural loss due to low flow during non-monsoon. * Industrial loss due to salinity intrusion, low water quality, loss of navigability. * Reduce fertility of the soil. * Loss of Biodiversity. * Increase drought. * E nvironmental loss. * Increase poverty, loss of employment and income. * Low productivity of land. * Deforestation in Sunderban due to salinity intrusion. * Increase salinity of ground water and lowering ground water table. Health risk due to low water quality and food insecurity. Sharing of Gangas Waters: The sharing of Gangas Water is a long standing issue between India and Bangladesh over the appropriate allocation and development of the water resources of the Gangas River that flow from Northern India into Bangladesh. The issue has subject of conflict for almost 34 years , with several bi-lateral agreements and sound of talks failing to produce results. However, a comprehensive bilateral treaty was signed by the then India PM H. D. Deve Gowda and the then Bangladeshi PM Sheikf Hasina Wajed on December 12,1996 in New Delhi. The treaty established a 30 years water sharing agreement with guaranteed minimum qualities of water supply for Bangladesh, whose right as a lower level riparian was recognized. Water sharing of Common Rivers: Indian government yet to give weight age to right of small neighbor water sharing of joint rivering between India and Bangladesh ( such as- Teesta, feni, Gomoti, Khawai,Karnaphuli, Surma etc. ) . India is a upper riparian country , so her government pull less importance or honor to its small neighbor country Bangladesh. , situates in the lower riparian zone than India. In the name of intera- river connection project, India already distributes the Water of some 30 rivers by 38 connecting Cannale in the North and North-West part. According to their plan, they preserve the water for dry season and when the rainy season comes. , they stop their water prevention project. That’s why the whole Bangladesh suffer much in both summer and monsoon season. As a result the agricultural systems of Bangladesh fall down. So, the price hike occurs. As a result, the standard of living will be down fall. The fish production into the river, water level down, rise the level of ursenic problem. Overall, the Southern part of our country will be a deseart. This intra river connection project of India is a big question of India- Bangladesh bilateral relationship. Upcoming Tipaimukh Dam: Tipaimuk Dam is a proposed hydroelectric project, to be build on the river Barak in Manipul State India. The project has unilaterally planned to build the dam just 100 km off the Bangladesh border and is likely to affect two major rivers in Bangladesh, namely the Surma and the Kushiara and another 60000 Manipuri people who depend on the river for livelihood and other activities. The Sinung Indigenous People Human Rights Organization(SIPHRO) of India said that, â€Å" the process of choosing it ( the Project premises) ignored both the indigenous people and the recommendations of the WCD( World Commission on Dams) . Impact of Tipaimuk Dam: Majority Bangladeshi are in anticipated fear of the probable damagethat may be created if the dam is launced. There is a growing sentim against the dam in Bangladesh. Bangladeshi experts have said the massive dam will disrupts the Seasonal rythem of the river and have an adverse effect on downsteam agriculture and fisheries. Some adverse effect of Tipaimuk dam over Bangladesh is shown below: * Around 5 crore people of Sylhet and Dhaka division will face problem as Surma and Kushiara will lose five feet water in the rainy season. * Environmental degradation will take place massively, severely affecting water and climate turning wet cooler environment into a hot uncomfortable cauldron. * It raises the regional security risk especially for Bangladesh. Because it is political conflictual region. The Indian government has no control in this region. A great loss will be done by this project, so the Indigenous people are getting reviling day by day. The design of this dam is faulty as a result there is a flood risk foe Bangladesh. The prime risk for this dam is overtopping. * Within 15 years after starting the project and withdraving water from the Barak, there will be no water in the river. * The total agricultural sector of around 20 districts, directly and indirectly will be affected. The Barak- Surma â€⠀œKushiara –Meghna river system streatched about 946 km. Around 669 km of this in the Bangladesh portion. If India withdraws water, the fate of this whole river system will be the reatened . Says Professot Anu Muhammad from the Economics Department in Jahangirnagar University. * Rise of Arsenic problem. * Loss of biodiversity. * Reduce the amount of mineral resources mainly fishes. Raise the risk of earthquake. Tista Barrage: The flow of water on the Teesta has weakened significantly in last 24 years for Gajoldoba barrage and some dams build by India in river’s upper basin. In February and March, it comes down to less than 1000 cubic feet per second from 5000 cubic feet per second in December and January. At times, it shrinks even further, say sources at the Water Development Boards hydrology department. For instance, they add the amount of water dropped to 370 cusec (cubic feet per second) in February 2007. The water flow in the month tised to be 4000 cusecd at the minimum before India built Gajoldva barrage, some 70 kilometers upstream from Dalia point in Nilphamart in 1985. The dam will kill all common rivers of the country particularly the Meegnha River, the biggest river of the country. Maritime Issue: A leading analyst of India defense has summed up Bangladesh’s position thus: â€Å"A threat to Bangladesh will be considered a threat to India, treaty or no treaty, and the main responsibility for ensuring the security f the countries on the shores of Bay of Bengal from the external maritime intervention will be India. As a geographically disadvantaged state, Bangladesh is passing through problem in delimiting sea zones with the neighbors, particularly with India. Because of concave configuration of its cost, Bangladesh suggests equity to be effected for delimitation of ma ritime boundaries against India. The configuration of the cost of India is convex and as such, it is Favorable for India to delimit the sea zones by equidistance principle. Indian’s plea is to effect equidistance principle to the delimitation of maritime boundaries with Bangladesh. The fact of boundaries is that what Bangladesh proposes,India disposes, and what India proposes Bangladesh disposes. Fundamentally each country wants to ensure its interests. Finally, Bangladesh raises this issue to the global perspective . The case between Bangladesh and India maritime boundary is now in the permanent Court of Arbriation(PCA) and this case is processing on 8th October 2009 Bangladesh goes to the court of Permanents foe this maritime issue. On 31st May 2011 Bangladesh submitted a memorial on the same court under Anex -7 in UNCLOS-3 . India will submit their counter memorial within 31st July 2012. After that, Bangladesh will give their answer within January 2013. And ,India will give their rigoener within July 2013. After compleating the tribunal judgement in the mid 2014 , the verdict of this case will declear. A good news for Bangladesh is that, they get a victory over Mayanmar in the same issue. So, it is a plus point for Bangladesh to counter battle with in maritime issue . South Talpatti Issue: According to International Law Traditionally , an Island if arise in the Territory, it is treated as part of the coastal state. South Talpatti (Bangladeshi name) or New Moon or Purbasha (Indian name) was a small uninhabitated offshore sandbar land from in the Bay of Bengal, off the coast of the Gnges-Brahmaputra Delta region. It emerged in the Bay of Bengal in the after math of Bhola Cyclone in 1970. This small iland is so important for both countries because of the existence of oil and natural gas. It covers an area of 2500sq meters and only 2 km from the mouth of the Hariabhaga river. The island was claimed by both Bangladesh and India, India had reportedly hoisted the Indian flag on the Island in 1981 and established a temporary base of BSF, regularly visiting with naval gunships. On the other hand,the Bangladeshi government claimed as during Ziaur Rahman’s visit to India in late 1970’s he urged to India for this Island. Last of all , the claim of Bangladesh about the wondership of South Talpatti island is more legal than that India. It is said that when the Bangladesh visited to go for negotiation through UN . India announced the island submerged. India government said that in March 2012 the island had disappeared and the sea level rise caused by climate change was a factor. Trade Issue: For Bangladesh trade with Indian companies is a very important component of the country’s global trade relations. In recent years, India’s importance as a source of import has registered a significant increase, while Bangladesh’s role as an exporter to India has been further marginalized.